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Edition of August 2007

Patrick F. Nix emigrated to the U.S., May 5th, 1877 (age 16), petitioned December 22, 1891 for naturalization dated, December 26, 1891 (source U.S District Court Prov. R.I. Vol. Yr 1888-1902),

Since we don't have any names of his friends or relatives in Rhode Island I decided to narrow the search via common occupations. My brother recalls the name 'McCormack' mentioned as quarry workers in Rockport or Gloucester, Massachusetts. Patrick was a stone cutter in Rhode Island until 1895, then for five years, circa 1904-1909  in the granite quarries while renting a house in Hardwick,  Vermont, 25 miles north north east of Barre Vermont via a road with no county number.  He worked in an unventilated granite cutting shed in Hardwick, VT.  Approximately 1909 the family moved to Arlington Massachusetts.  Quarrying in that area ceased in the early 1900's  and a site of the quarries has been turned into a recreational area Millstone Hill . His death in 1922 was most likely hastened by silicosis from quarry dust. The 1920 census reports him in a sanatorium for treatment.

Entering the word 'quarry' in the Clare County Library search engine resulted in 6 documents with descriptions and names of locations of quarrying and mineral deposits in the mid 19th century. I picked out the following placenames for quarries in County Clare:

However the articles made it clear that quarrying of varying scale could have occurred at some time over most of the County. The chief minerals being slate and limestone but several others, including manganese were mentioned. Limestone was found in all of the central and northern sector of the County. Please go to above source on this data. At this point, I don't know Clare County geography very well.

Go to this website for a revealing historical account of Vermont's BARRE GRANITE Industry for the period 1780-1996.

I lifted the following paragraph from the Encyclopedia Britannica on line

"Almost 10 percent of all Vermont residents speak French as their first language. Immigrants from northern Italy carried with them centuries of quarrying and stone-carving tradition to Barre and other granite-producing areas. They have given Barre a character quite different from what the visitor expects to find in a Vermont city. Other quarry workers from northern Spain settled in the Barre-Montpelier area. Many Welshmen worked in the slate mines of western Vermont because they were familiar with this type of mining in their native land."
I have seen other references to the immigrant quarry workers countries of origin without mentioning the Irish. My grandmother told my brother that when they lived in Hardwick, circa 1905-1910, they lived with 'yankee' neighbors who were impressed with grandmother's industrious gardening. She raised raised enough vegetables to feed her husband and five children who in 1905 were from 2 to 11 years old.



Professor Lecky, a Protestant of British blood and ardent British sympathy, says in his "History of Ireland in the 18th Century", quoted in "Story of the Irish Race", Seamus MacManus, Devin-Adair Co., Greenwich, Connecticut, 1979 p.458-459

" that the object of the Penal Laws was threefold:

  1. To deprive the Catholics of all civil life
  2. To reduce them to a condition of most extreme and brutal ignorance
  3. 3. To dissociate them from the soil"

    He might, with absolute justice, substituted Irish for Catholics-and added, (4) to expirate (cause to expire) the Race.

    • The Irish Catholic was forbidden the exercise of his religion.
    • He was forbidden to receive education,
    • He was forbidden to enter a profession.
    • He was forbidden to hold public office.
    • He was forbidden to engage in trade or commerce.
    • He was forbidden to live in a corporate town or within five miles thereof.
    • He was forbidden to own a horse of greater value than five pounds.
    • He was forbidden to purchase land.
    • He was forbidden to lease land.
    • He was forbidden to accept a mortgage on land in security for a loan.
    • He was forbidden to vote.
    • He was forbidden to keep any arms for his protection.
    • He was forbidden to hold a life annuity.
    • He was forbidden to buy land from a Protestant.
    • He was forbidden to receive a gift of land from a Protestant.
    • He was forbidden to inherit land from a Protestant.
    • He was forbidden to inherit anything from a Protestant.
    • He was forbidden to rent any land that was worth more than thirty shillings a year.
    • He was forbidden to reap from his land any profit exceeding a third of the rent.
    • He could not be guardian to a child.
    • He could not, when dying, leave his infant children under Catholic guardianship.
    • He could not attend Catholic worship.
    • He was compelled by law to attend Protestant worship.
    • He could not himself educate his child.
    • He could not send his child to a Catholic teacher.
    • He could not employ a Catholic teacher to come to his child.
    • He could not send his child abroad to receive education.


    Date sent: Wed, 26 Jan 2000 16:08:26 +0930
    From: "brian Watts"
    Subject: [TSL] Emigration from Ireland 1851

    From " The Illustrated London Times" April 19 - 1851
    Emigration-- The "Cork Constitution", referring to the extensive emigration at present going on from that part of Ireland, say;--"All the roads entering this city (Cork) are crowded daily with emigrants, with car loads of luggage, boxes, bags of potatoes,&c,, for America. Many of them are comfortably clad, others look very poor, but with scarce an exception they are all able-bodied, and appear to be agricultural labourers,servants, &c. Saturday, there was an unusual rush of emigrants for Liverpool by steamers, thence to take shipping for America. It was computed that on the day no fewer than 1100 persons, male and female, left this port. This week there is a similar rush, as the emigrants are leaving by sailing vessels. Tuesday, the Rajah, Captain Jones, left Queenstown with emigrants for New York, and that vessel was followed by the John Francis, Captain Davie, with emigrants for Quebec. Again, on Wednesday, the Brilliant, Captain Curbleton, with emigrants, left for Quebec.!

    Several other vessels are preparing to follow, and owing to the mania for emigration each will have its regulated number. From Limerick we learn that 2311persons have sailed as emigrants since the opening of this season, From Galway 1600 have sailed, From Waterford the rush of emigration far exceeds anything ever witnessed there. From the port of New Ross, in the county of Waterford, upwards of 1000 persons have recently left for America


    Date sent: Wed, 26 Jan 2000 11:58:36 +0000
    From: (Ted Finch.)
    Subject: Re: [TSL] Sunk ship

    Here are the brief details of major losses on the N.Atlantic between 1870-1890 travelling from the UK to America.

    • ATLANTIC White Star Line, Liverpool - New York, 1st Apr.1873, wrecked Halifax, 585 lost.
    • TROJAN Anchor Line, Glasgow - Halifax, 4th Apr.1874, went missing, about 45 lost.
    • COLOMBO Wilson Line, Hull - New York, 3rd Dec.1876, went missing, 44 lost.
    • CITY OF LONDON Thistle Line, London - New York, 12th Nov.1881, went missing, 41 lost.

    Websites I have reviewed and consider worth posting here.

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